Full TGIF Record # 105070
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Web URL(s):http://www.paceturf.org/member/Documents/0410.pdf
    Last checked: 10/18/2005
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Publication Type:
Author(s):Gelernter, Wendy; Stowell, Larry J.
Author Affiliation:PACE Turfgrass Research Institute, San Diego, California
Title:Proposed guidelines for sulfur and chloride in turfgrass soils
Source:PACE Insights. Vol. 10, No. 10, 2004, p. 1-4.
# of Pages:4
Publishing Information:San Diego, California: PACE Turfgrass Institute
Keywords:TIC Keywords: Sulfur fertilizers; Soil salinity; Sulfur; Black layer; Soil amendments; Sulfates; Soil analysis; Gypsum; Electrical conductivity; Anaerobic soil; Chlorides; Poa; Agrostis; Cynodon
Abstract/Contents:Presents the results of a soil survey conducted on golf course soils to answer the following questions: "1. Is the build-up of sulfur in soil a problem for turf health?", "2. What levels of sulfur can cause damage to turf?", "3. If sulfur levels get too high from prolonged use of a product such as gypsum (calcium sulfate), what is the impact of switching to an alternate source of calcium that contains chloride (for example calcium cholride) instead of sulfur?", and "4. Will chloride eventually build up in soil, and if so, what levels of chloride can cause damage to turf?" States that "excess levels of sulfur are rarely, if ever, known to cause direct damage to turf. However, the accumulation of negatively charged sulfate ions in the soil can cause a big increase in soil salinity...[and] this increase can be enough to result in salinity damage to turf." Results of the investigation show "a very strong relationship between" soil sulfate concentration and soil salinity. Also mentions a relationship between soil chloride levels and salinity "that was similar to the relationship between sulfur and salinity. This means that chloride ions can be an important contributor to soil salinity, in the same way as sulfate ions can." Concludes that "direct turf damage due to excessive levels of chloride or sulfur is very rare on golf course turf"; "despite this fact, continued use of sulfur or chloride-containing amendments and fertilizers can contribute to soil salinity levels that can damage turf"; "using the guidelines shown in Table 1, keep track of soil ECs, chloride and sulfur levels through twice yearly soil testing programs. During periods of low rainfall, additional monitoring of ECs is required with the hand-held TDS-4 meter"; "if you see EC, sulfur or chloride levels increasing towards the levels show in Table 1, your first step should be to trigger leaching programs to move the offending salts down blow the rootzone"; and "if sulfur or chloride are approaching the levels show in Table 1, you should also avoid the use of products that contain the nutrient that is excess until you see levels going well below the guideline values shown in Table 1."
See Also:Other items relating to: Soil Salinity

Other items relating to: Salinity Management For Cool Season Grasses
ASA/CSSA/SSSA Citation (Crop Science-Like - may be incomplete):
Gelernter, W., and L. J. Stowell. 2004. Proposed guidelines for sulfur and chloride in turfgrass soils. PACE Insights. 10(10):p. 1-4.
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    Last checked: 10/18/2005
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