Full TGIF Record # 14197
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Publication Type:
Author(s):Graff, Paul; Hipp, Billy
Author Affiliation:Graff: Research Associate, Soil Chemistry; Hipp: Professor, Soil Chemistry, The Texas Agricultural Experiment Station, Dallas, Texas
Title:Influence of irrigation and nitrogen on weed invasion in bermudagrass and St. Augustinegrass
Other records with the "Culture" Section
Source:Texas Turfgrass Research - 1986. May 1987, p. 39-41.
Publishing Information:College Station, TX: Texas Agricultural Experiment Station.
# of Pages:3
Keywords:TIC Keywords: Stenotaphrum secundatum; Cynodon dactylon; Nitrogen fertilization; Weed invasion; Irrigation practices; Fertilization program
Abstract/Contents:Evaluates irrigation and nitrogen application guidelines to maximize turf quality of St. Augustinegrass and common bermudagrass for North Central Texas and compares varying levels of irrigation and nitrogen fertilization to subsequent weed invasion. Irrigation treatments were initiated in 1983 and continued through 1985. Ammonium sulfate was applied in two treatments (May & August) at 4 to 6 lb N/1000 sq ft. Plots were evaluated for grass and broadleaf weeds in late- May 1986. The most widespread invader of the St. Augustinegrass was common bermudagrass with the level of dominance increasing greatly between 2 and 4 lb N. This result was independent of the presence or absence of irrigation application (R2=0.79 combining irrigation treatments). Stand dominance by common bermudagrass increased by 53.8 percent between 2 and 4 lb N application rates, but no further increase was noted at the 6 lb N level. Stand dominance levels for common bermudagrass were 17.5, 25.0, 71.3, and 7.0 percent at the 0, 2, 4, and 6 lb N levels, respectively. In early spring 1984 and 1985, the St. Augustinegrass receiving higher N (4-6 lb/1000) was more delayed in its greenup than either the St. Augustinegrass plots receiving no or low (2 lb/1000) N, or the common bermudagrass inherently present from previous invasion. We have also observed a higher percentage of winter kill of St. Augustinegrass receiving higher N (4-6 lb/1000) as compared with that receiving no or low N(2 lb/1000). This winter kill tendency thus delayed spring greenup of plots receiving high N and likely contributed to common bermudagrass gaining advantage and invading these treamtents. Little common bermudagrass invasion (17.5% dominance) occurred in the 0-N sub-plots with and without irrigation, however, turf color was poor and texture was coarse. Yellow wood sorrel and knotted hedge parsley exhibited a negative response to N fertilization while purple nutsedge and bermudagrass invasion was positively correlated with fertilizer rates. Level of N did not significantly affect weed densities in common bermudagrass plots but densities of all weed classes except grasses were lower in irrigated versus nonirrigated plots. Irrigation increases turfgrass densities thereby providing less opprotunity for weed germination.
ASA/CSSA/SSSA Citation (Crop Science-Like - may be incomplete):
Graff, P., and B. Hipp. 1987. Influence of irrigation and nitrogen on weed invasion in bermudagrass and St. Augustinegrass. Tex Turfgrass Res. p. 39-41.
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MSU catalog number: SB 433 .T42
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