Full TGIF Record # 159173
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Web URL(s):http://a-c-s.confex.com/crops/2009am/webprogram/Paper56823.html
    Last checked: 01/19/2010
Publication Type:
Content Type:Abstract or Summary only
Author(s):Beard, James B.
Author Affiliation:Texas A&M Univ., Professor Emeritus, Cedar, MI
Title:Martin and Ruth Massengale Lectureship: [The history of sod production]
Section:Martin and Ruth Massengale Lectureship
Other records with the "Martin and Ruth Massengale Lectureship" Section
Meeting Info.:Pittsburgh, PA: November 1-5, 2009
Source:2009 International Annual Meetings: [Abstracts][ASA-CSSA-SSSA]. 2009, p. 56823.
Publishing Information:[Madison, WI]: American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, Soil Science Society of America
# of Pages:1
Keywords:TIC Keywords: Cultivar improvement; History; Sod industry trends; Sod production; Sod production equipment
Abstract/Contents:"Sodding for turfgrass use dates from at least the 12th century in Japan, but did not become a major speciality crop until the 1960's. Until the 1900's sod propagation exceeded seeding as the primary means of establishing turfed sports fields and quality lawns. A key reason was the high weed content in grass seed harvested primarily from old pastures. Sea-washed bentgrass (Agrostis spp. L.) sod was commonly used in the United Kingdom. Cutting of mature sod from animal-grazed pastures, termed pasture stripping, was practiced in the United States. A US patent was issued in 1944 to Frank Phillips for the first powered, mechanical sod cutter with oscillating blade. Major improvements in turfgrass cultivars and cultural practices were investigated and adopted during the 1960's. The break-through helminthosporium resistance of Merion Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.) resulted in it being the key cool-season turfgrass contributing to the 1960's sod expansion. Major advances for warm-humid climates were the Tif-series bermudagrass hybrids (Cynodon dactylon x C. Transvaalensis), especially Tifway (1960), and the chinch bug resistant Floratam (1973) St Augustinegrass (Stenotaphrum secundatum Walter Kuntze). Cultural investigations at Michigan State University to shorten the grow-in time included seeding rates, mowing heights, nitrogen fertilization programs, harvest cutting depths, and net sod production. This research was facilitated by development of a sod strength apparatus (1968) to assess shortening the production time, and by a transplant sod rooting apparatus (1968) in studies to minimize desiccation vulnerability. This was followed by numerous mechanical advances in sod harvesting and transport achieved by innovative sod growers in the late-1960/early-1970's that significantly reduced the manual labor requirement. Development of powered sod rolling machines led to dual sod cutting/rolling machines, with pallet loading subsequently added. Cultural practices to minimize sod loss by heating during shipment were developed in 1966-69. Mechanical transplanting of sod for extensive areas came into widespread use much later."
Note:This item is an abstract only
ASA/CSSA/SSSA Citation (Crop Science-Like - may be incomplete):
Beard, J. B. 2009. Martin and Ruth Massengale Lectureship: [The history of sod production]. Int. Ann. Meet. p. 56823.
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    Last checked: 01/19/2010
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