Full TGIF Record # 16316
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Web URL(s):https://web.archive.org/web/20120203201347/http://www.wsweedscience.org/Proceedings%20Archive/1989.pdf#page=157
    Last checked: 07/20/2016
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Publication Type:
Content Type:Abstract or Summary only
Author(s):Williams, M. Coburn; Smith, Burton J.
Author Affiliation:USDA-ARS, Logan, UT and CES, University of Hawaii, Kamuela, HI
Title:Effect of Nitrogen Fertilizers on Nitrate and Soluble Oxalate Concentration In Kikuyugrass.
Meeting Info.:Held March 13-16, 1989, Honolulu, HI.
Source:Proceedings of the Western Society of Weed Science. Vol. 42, March 1989, p. 145-146.
Publishing Information:Logan, UT: Plant Science Dept., Utah State University.
Keywords:TIC Keywords: Pennisetum clandestinum; Nitrogen fertilizers; Nitrates; Soluble concentrations; Toxicity; Urea; Potassium nitrate; Application rates
Abstract/Contents:"Kikuyugrass (Pennisetum clandestinum Hochst. ex Chiov.) is a tropical pasture grass that may accumulate toxic levels of soluble oxalates and nitrates. Osteodystrophia in horses (oxalates) and methemoglobinemia in cattle and swine (nitrates) have been caused by grazing kikuyugrass. A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of fertilization with urea and KNO3 on oxalate and nitrate accumulation. Kikuyugrass pastures in Panama and Hawaii were treated with urea at 56 and 112 kg N/ha. Plants in the greenhouse were treated with urea and KNO3 at 112 kg N/ha. Plants from Hawaii and Panama were collected weekly for 7 weeks and greenhouse plants were sampled eight times over 72 hours. All plants were analyzed for percent nitrate (as KNO3) and percent soluble oxalates. Fertilization with urea and KNO3 did not affect soluble oxalate concentration in kikuyugrass sampled from the field or greenhouse. Fertilization with urea at 112 kg N/ha significantly increased nitrate levels in kikuyugrass in Panama two weeks after treatment (0.44%), but nitrate levels generally remained below 0.1% in both treated and untreated plants. Nitrate levels in kikuyugrass from Hawaii ranged from 0.7% to 1.0% in untreated plants and 1.3% to 2.1% in fertilized plants. Differences between rates were not significant. Plants treated with urea in the greenhouse contained 0.4% nitrate 72 hours after treatment. Plants treated with KNO3 assayed 0.26%, 1.84%, and 2.36% nitrate, respectively, 4, 24, and 72 hours after treatment. Plants that contained 0.5% to 1.5% nitrate (as KNO3) may be toxic to livestock, and nitrate levels over 1.5% are potentially lethal. Fertilization with urea or KNO3 had no affect on soluble oxalate concentration in kikuyugrass, but urea increased nitrate concentration to toxic levels in plants in Hawaii. Fertilization with KNO3 at 112 kg N/ha produced potentially lethal levels of nitrate in kikuyugrass within 24 hours."
Note:This item is an abstract only!
ASA/CSSA/SSSA Citation (Crop Science-Like - may be incomplete):
Williams, M. C., and B. J. Smith. 1989. Effect of Nitrogen Fertilizers on Nitrate and Soluble Oxalate Concentration In Kikuyugrass.. Proc. West. Soc. Weed Sci. 42:p. 145-146.
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    Last checked: 07/20/2016
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    Notes: Item is within a single large file
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MSU catalog number: SB 610 .W43 v.42
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