Full TGIF Record # 164016
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Publication Type:
Author(s):Bhowmik, P. C.
Title:Biology and control of Kyllinga gracillima in turfgrass environments
Meeting Info.:11-14 April 2010: Angers, Loire Valley, France
Source:2nd European Turfgrass Society Conference Proceedings. Vol. 2, May 21 2010, p. Unknown.
# of Pages:0
Publishing Information:Angers, France: European Turfgrass Society
Abstract/Contents:"The genus Kyllinga from the Cyperaceae family consists of 40 to 45 different weedy species commonly known as spikesedge (Tucker, 1987). The genus Kyllinga is widely distributed in the tropical, subtropical, and warm temperate regions around the world (Holem et al., 1979; Tucker, 1987). In the United States, 5 to 6 species of Kyllinga are known as problem weeds in turfgrass, pastures and roadside environments. All these species are apparently introduced into the United States from Asia during early 19th century. These species are commonly found as a weed in turfgrass environments. Plants are either low rhizomatous perennials or annuals with triangular stems, and with 1 to 5 grass-like basal leaves. Leaf blades are V-shaped with prominent midribs and finely toothed margins. They produce 2 to 4 spreading terminal inflorescence with cylindrical, spherical, or dome-shaped spikes (heads). The number of spikelets per spike varies from 15 to 150, and they are surrounded by a tiny scale like bracteole. All kyllinga species produce viable seeds. Achenes are laterally compressed, narrowly ovoid to oblong, or ellipsoid with finely punctuate surface. There are three common types of kyllinga found as a weed in the United States. Green kyllinga (Kyllinga brevifolia Rottb.) is the most commonly found in turfgrass environment among all kyllinga species A closely related perennial species is false green kyllinga (Kyllinga gracillima Miq.). Green and false green kyllinga are difficult to differentiate based on vegetative characteristic as both species are rhizomatous and of similar seed heads. They can only be distinguished by time of flowering and seed morphology. Green kyllinga plants produce flowers throughout the growing season, while false green kyllinga plants produce seed heads only from late August until frosts occur. Green kyllinga seeds have denticulate appendages which are absent in false green kyllinga seeds. The geographic distribution of green kyllinga within United States is largely along the coast whereas false green kyllinga is found in the inland from Arkansas to as far north as southern New England. Another important perennial species found in the United States is fragrant kyllinga (Kyllinga odorata Vahl.). It has a distinctive sweet aroma when its leaves are mowed or crushed. Fragrant kyllinga is tufted or bunchy rather than rhizomatous as compared to the other species. They produce white, 3-lobed seed heads generally looks like torpedo. Comparisons of morphological features of three kyllinga species are presented in Table 1 (adapted from Bryson et al., 1997)."
ASA/CSSA/SSSA Citation (Crop Science-Like - may be incomplete):
Bhowmik, P. C. 2010. Biology and control of Kyllinga gracillima in turfgrass environments. Eur. Turfgrass Soc. Conf. Proc. 2:p. Unknown.
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