Full TGIF Record # 194449
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Web URL(s):http://agbioresearch.msu.edu/uploads/files/About_Tab/Leg_Reports/Turgrass_report.pdf
    Last checked: 02/July/2014
    Requires: PDF Reader
    Notes: Previously published with a different URL.
https://web.archive.org/web/20130503183504/http://agbioresearch.msu.edu/pdf/SE-132%20Turfgrass-12-8-11.pdf
    Last checked: 01/10/2014
    Requires: PDF Reader
http://archive.lib.msu.edu/tic/monos/origins2012.pdf
    Last checked: 09/29/2015
    Requires: PDF Reader
Publication Type:
i
Report
Material Type:Booklet
Monographic Author(s):Beard, James B
Author Affiliation:Professor Emeritus, Texas A&M University and International Sports Turf Institute, College Station, Texas
Monograph Title:Origin, Biogeographical Migrations and Diversifications of Turfgrasses, 2012.
# of Pages:26
Publishing Information:[East Lansing, Michigan]: Michigan State University College of Agriculture and Natural Resources AgBioResearch
Collation:26 pp.
Series:Research Report SR132
Keywords:TIC Keywords: Cool season turfgrasses; Ecological distribution; Geographical distribution; Migration; Native North American grasses; Naturalizing; Warm season turfgrasses
Abstract/Contents:"Whether a turfgrass species is characterized as native or naturalized to North America has been based on world-wide simplistic observations focused on where the greatest genetic diversity occurred, termed center-of-origin. Research information as to dating and locations of subsequent migration and diversification has been minimal due to lack of needed research technologies. Intercontinental migration of grasses has been assumed to have been unlikely due to oceanic separation. Recent development of paleobotanical studies using ultrastructural electron microscopic techniques and stable carbon isotope dating instrumentation and research procedures, plus molecular phylogenetic research and cladistic biogeographic analysis of large data sets are clarifying our understanding of migration patterns and dating of multiple secondary centers-of-origin for grasses. Pre-anthropological intercontinental migration of grasses is now being documented as more significant than previously assumed. Global heating/cooling phases and shifts in sea level appear to have facilitated oceanic island hopping. At varying times, these bridge migrations may have involved the northern Europe to North America route via Greenland, Bering Bridge between Asia and North America, southeast Asia to Australia via New Guinea, South America to North America via Caribbean and later via Panama Bridge, and Africa-Europe via the Gibraltar Straits. Also, the potential for transoceanic migrations is being reconsidered. Primitive ancestral grasses are now proposed to have appeared during the Late Cretaceous between 65 and 96 mya (million years ago) in Gondwanan Africa. The ancestral Pooideae are estimated to have migrated to the steppes of Laurasian Eurasia during the Eocene ~ 38 to 47 mya. Taxonomic divergence of the base C3 Pooideae group appears to have been initiated in Europe ~ 26 to 33.5 mya. The base C4 Pooideae apparently arose in Africa ~ 30 to 33 mya, followed by migration to West Gondwana South America and to East Gondwana India and Australia. Diversification led to the emergence of an ancient Poeae group known as the fine-leaf fescues (Festuca) in central-Europe during the mid-Miocene ~ 13 mya. Subsequent migration occurred via the mountains of central and eastern Asia, across the Bering Land Bridge into North America, southward via the western mountains, over the Panamanian Land Bridge, and across the Andes to Patagonia. This occurred between ~ 3.8 and 10 mya, which is before the anthropological effects of humans. Clearly, the fine-leaf fescues are native to North America, migrating eastward after the ice age glacial melt ~ 1 mya. Similar investigations with other turfgrasses may clarify the migration routing and diversification dating of the other turfgrass species. Thus, the current status of turfgrass species in terms of native or anthropological naturalization is presented in this paper and summarized in the following table." Includes: Introduction (Native Turfgrass Species; Naturalized Turfgrass Species; Taxonomy; Plant Evolution Phases; Early Plate Tectonics; Intercontinental Plant Migration; Primitive Ancestral Grasses; Diversification; Migration; Grazing Mammals and Turfgrasses; Human Dispersal; and Modern Diversification); Cool-Season Turfgrasses (Fine-Leaf Fescue; Bluegrass; Bentgrass; Ryegrass; and Tall Fescue); Warm-Season Turfgrasses (Bermudagrass; Zoysiagrass; St Augustinegrass; Centipedegrass; Seashore Paspalum; and Carpetgrass); Semi-Arid Warm/Cool-Season Turfgrasses (Wheatgrass; and American Buffalograss and Gramagrass); and Summary Comments.
Library of Congress
Subject Headings:
Turfgrasses -- Origin; Turfgrasses -- Geographical distribution; Plants -- Migration; Plant diversity
Language:English
References:101
See Also:See also related book, Turfgrass History and Literature: Lawns, Sports, and Golf, 2014, R=202862. R=202862

See also related article "Turfgrass is not an invasive species" Turf News [TPI], 39(5) September/October 2015, p. 41, R=265038. R=265038
Note:Partial reprint appears in Turfgrass History and Literature: Lawns, Sports, and Golf, 2014, pp. 3-27
Partial reprint appears in Turf News [TPI], 39(5) September/October 2015, p. 42-45
Tables
Maps
"This electronic version is being [will be] published by the Michigan State University Press in a book titled Turfgrass History and Literature"
"SR132 1P-Web-12-11-VO"
Geographic Terms:North America
See Also:Other items relating to: Seashore Paspalum - Since 2000
ASA/CSSA/SSSA Citation (Crop Science-Like - may be incomplete):
Beard, James B. 2012. Origin, Biogeographical Migrations and Diversifications of Turfgrasses. 26 pp. [East Lansing, Michigan]: Michigan State University College of Agriculture and Natural Resources AgBioResearch.
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Web URL(s):
http://agbioresearch.msu.edu/uploads/files/About_Tab/Leg_Reports/Turgrass_report.pdf
    Last checked: 02/July/2014
    Requires: PDF Reader
    Notes: Previously published with a different URL.
https://web.archive.org/web/20130503183504/http://agbioresearch.msu.edu/pdf/SE-132%20Turfgrass-12-8-11.pdf
    Last checked: 01/10/2014
    Requires: PDF Reader
http://archive.lib.msu.edu/tic/monos/origins2012.pdf
    Last checked: 09/29/2015
    Requires: PDF Reader
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MSU catalog number: b10306482
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