Full TGIF Record # 219346
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Web URL(s):https://listings.lib.msu.edu/nttfd/1951.pdf#page=24
    Last checked: 01/16/2017
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Publication Type:
Content Type:Abstract or Summary only
Author(s):Forbes, Ian Jr.
Author Affiliation:Research Agronomist, Division of Forage Crops and Diseases, B. P. I. S. & A. E., Agricultural Research Administration and the U. S. Department of Agriculture
Title:Zoysia grass breeding at Beltsville, Maryland
Meeting Info.:October 7-9, 1951
Source:Proceedings of National Turf Field Days. 1951, p. 24-26.
# of Pages:3
Publishing Information:West Point, Pennsylvania: West Point Lawn Products
Keywords:TIC Keywords: Cultivar evaluation; Research priorities; Seed yield; Zoysia japonica; Zoysia matrella; Zoysia tenuifolia
Abstract/Contents:"The work that we have been concerned with at Beltsville could be broken down into four main catagories [categories]. One is seed yield studies from the genetic standpoint. We have been able to select six heavy seed yielding strains of Zoysia japonica. We have had them under test for about four years and at this point we have four years' data on these Zoysia japonica strains from the standpoint of seed yield. The strains themselves are not superior to common Zoysia japonica so far as turf characteristics are concerned, but they are heavy seed yielders and could be used for domestic seed production. At present there is no domestic seed production of Zoysia japonica and the seed on the market today is imported from the Orient. Imported seed has contained much ergot in the past, and we don't know how long a foreign source might be available. In any event, an adequate supply of domestically produced seed of this grass would be desirable. With these heavy seed yielding strains, we have set up some turf quality and seed yield trials that are now in the second year of testing. We are comparing these six strains from the standpoint of turf and seed yield from plantings of selfed seed versus polycross seed. The point is that we would like to know which one will give the best turf. It is considered at present that very soon we will be in a position to release a heavy seed yielding synthetic variety of several of these strains for commercial seed production in the United States. Of course, it would be a few years later before one could buy such seed on the market. The second major part of the work we have been concerned with has been a more fundamental type of research on the cytology of the different species of Zoysia. As you know, there are so far, three species present in the United States. They are Zoysia japonica, Zoysia matrella and Zoysia tenuifolia. We have determined the chromosome numbers of these species. We have hybrids among all three species, and we have studied the hybrids cytologically. We have also grown the hybrids and the second generation (F2) which is the one in which combinations of the various characteristics of different species occur. Some of you might not be familiar with the characteristics of three species. Briefly, they are as follows. Zoysia japonica is broad-leafed, winter-hardy in this area and much further north and is a heavy seed producer at Beltsville. Zoysia matrella is fine-leaved fairly winter-hardy in this area most of the time, and further north it will winter-kill. Zoysia matrella is not a heavy seed producer at Beltsville. Zoysia tenuifolia, which is the third species, is very fine-leaved and is not winter-hrady much north of Florida. The main characteristic of Zoysia tenuifolia in which we are interested is its fine leaves. The purpose of making hybrids between Zoysia tenuifolia and Zoysia japonica would be to get a combination which is very fine-leafed, which is winter-hardy in this area and which is also a heavy seed producer. That means getting heavy seed production and winter hardiness from japonica and fine leaves from tenuifolia. So far, we have hybrids with winter-hardiness and the fine leaves, but will still don't know how well these hybrids produce seed. Another fundamental study that we are carrying on is the determination of the amount of self and cross-pollincation which occurs under field conditions in Zoysia japonica. This is important so far as seed production is concerned. We would like to know whether it would be possible to produce hybrid seed of Zoysia on a commercial scale so that we could obtain the same benefits of hybrid vigor in Zoysia japonica that the corn seed people have obtained through the use of hybrid seed. A third main division of the work that we are doing has to do with the technique study on methods of selection. In this study we are trying to determine the best height of cut and the best management under which to make our selections of superior Zoysia seedlings. Right now we have a rather extensive planting of Zoysia japonica selections which we have obtained in the past plus a number of interspecific hybrids. We have a total of 100 of these selections. They are growing under three heights of cut with three replications. They were planted last summer and over-seeded last fall with Kentucky bluegrass. This summer we have rated each of those clones under the different heights of cut, growing with bluegrass, for turf quality and rate of spread. We will rate them at the proper time for compatibility with Kentucky bluegrass. There are several types of information that we will get from this study. One is the determination of the best procedure under which to test selections of Zoysia. The other type of information is related to actual turf production. It will be possible to determine the height of cut at which the Zoysia grasses in general provide the best turf and also the height of cut which results in the greatest compatibility of Zoysia with Kentucky bluegrass. There is one last project on which we have been working and that is the study of seed germination of Zoysia. We are still lacking adequate information on seed treatment of Zoysia to get rapid establishment. We have determined in the past that I the seed is hulled with hammer mill, rapid and high germination is obtained. Actually, getting rapid germination is the more important of the two. If one is going to seed Zoysia japonica in June, one must have seed that will germinate fairly rapidly as crabgrass seed is also germinating at this time and may crowd out the Zoysia seedlings if they are too slow in germination. We obtained 35 pounds of pure caryopses of Zoysia japonica seed last spring by the hammer mill method, but it took a week and a half of one man's time. We have continued with the seed germination study hoping to find a more efficient method of seed treatment. A combination of sulfuric acid seed treatment followed by hammer milling (which we tried this year) or some other mechanical treatment to remove the softened glumes appears to be a more economical method."
Note:This item is an abstract only!
Geographic Terms:Beltsville, Maryland
ASA/CSSA/SSSA Citation (Crop Science-Like - may be incomplete):
Forbes, I. Jr. 1951. Zoysia grass breeding at Beltsville, Maryland. Proc. Natl. Turf Field Days. p. 24-26.
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    Last checked: 01/16/2017
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