Full TGIF Record # 224547
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Web URL(s):http://www.wsweedscience.org//wp-content/uploads/proceedings-archive/1998.pdf#page=100
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Author(s):Cudney, David W.; Shaw, David A.; Wilen, Cheryl
Author Affiliation:Cudney: Extension Specialist, University of California, Riverside, CA; Shaw and Wilen: Farm Advisor, University of California Cooperative Extension, San Diego, CA
Title:Smutgrass and green kyllinga, two "new" challenges to turf production in Southern California
Section:Research section II (Weeds of horticultural crops)
Other records with the "Research section II (Weeds of horticultural crops)" Section
Meeting Info.:Waikoloa, Hawaii: March 10-12, 1998
Source:1998 Proceedings of the Western Society of Weed Science. Vol. 51, 1998, p. 88-89.
# of Pages:2
Publishing Information:Newark, California: Western Society of Weed Science
Keywords:TIC Keywords: Herbicide efficacy; Kyllinga brevifolia; Sporobolus; Weed control; Weed profile
Abstract/Contents:"Smutgrass and green kyllinga, although not really new to California, are increasingly seen as severe weed problems in turf. Both are perennial weeds, but differ in their favored niches. Smutgrass (a native of Asia) is most competitive in warm, dry, exposed sites, while green kyllinga (a native of tropical America) is found in well-watered areas. Smutgrass was named for a dark-colored fungus, often found on the upper leaves of seed-heads. The seed is usually quite small (about one mm in diameter) and amber in color. In California turf, when left unmowed, plants attain a height of approximately 65 cm. Smutgrass is very slow in becoming established, but once established it is quite hardy and survives best in drier sites (southern slopes or areas without sufficient irrigation for standard turfgrasses to be competitive). The grass stems are wiry and difficult to mow. Mowers often "ride up and over" smutgrass clumps (for this reason some turfgrass managers refer to smutgrass as "wiregrass"). Green kyllinga is a sedge which is often confused with yellow or purple nutsedge. Unlike the nutsedges, kyllinga does not produce tubers but reproduces vegetatively with a vigorous system of rhizomes. It also produces numerous, small, (flatted 1 mm in diameter) seeds (over 2,000 per plant in a 90-day period). Green kyllinga forms a weak sod, reducing playability for sports purposes. It also re-grows quickly after mowing giving turf a clumpy, uneven appearance. Both species germinate in spring through the summer months (smutgrass started germinating at about 13 C and green kyllinga at about 17 C). Control of both species, once established, is difficult. Smutgrass invasion can be slowed by increasing soil moisture in dry sites; this allows the standard turgfrasses [turfgrasses] to be more competitive. Preemergence herbicides will control germinating seedlings of both smutgrass and green kyllinga. In trials at UC, Riverside all of the common preemergence turf herbicides tested (atrazine, pendimethalin, prodiamine, pronamide, DCPA, dithiopyr, bensulide, and benefin) controlled both species. Repeated postemergence applications of MSMA (at least four applications annually for smutgrass) were successful in reducing both species. Smutgrass was also controlled with repeated applications of fenoxaprop in cool-season turfgrass, but fenoxaprop cannnot be used in bermudagrass where most of the smutgrass infestations have occurred. Green kyllinga was reduced best by two, sequential applications of halosulfuron. Two, sequential applications of bentazon were also effective. Smutgrass was reduced non-selecitvely with postemergence, spot treatments of glyphosate and glufosinate. Control of smutgrass was also obtained from wick applications of concentrated solutions of glyphosate. Wick applications required careful coordination of mowing, watering and wicking. Mowing had to be withheld for at least 10 days so that wick applications could be accomplished when there was at least a 10 cm height differential between the turf and smutgrass."
Note:This item is an abstract only!
Geographic Terms:Southern California
ASA/CSSA/SSSA Citation (Crop Science-Like - may be incomplete):
Cudney, D. W., D. A. Shaw, and C. Wilen. 1998. Smutgrass and green kyllinga, two "new" challenges to turf production in Southern California. Proc. West. Soc. Weed Sci. 51:p. 88-89.
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    Last checked: 09/13/2017
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