Full TGIF Record # 224575
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Web URL(s):http://www.wsweedscience.org//wp-content/uploads/proceedings-archive/1998.pdf#page=136
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Author(s):Becker, Roger L.; Miller, Douglas W.
Author Affiliation:Becker: Associate Professor and Extension Agronomist; Miller: Scientist, Department of Agronomy and Plant Genetics, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN
Title:Warm season grass establishment systems
Section:Research section V (Wetland and wildlands)
Other records with the "Research section V (Wetland and wildlands)" Section
Meeting Info.:Waikoloa, Hawaii: March 10-12, 1998
Source:1998 Proceedings of the Western Society of Weed Science. Vol. 51, 1998, p. 127-128.
# of Pages:2
Publishing Information:Newark, California: Western Society of Weed Science
Keywords:TIC Keywords: Cultural methods; Establishment; Forest management; Herbicide application; Warm season turfgrasses; Weed control; Wildlife conservation
Abstract/Contents:"The objective of this study was to observe the effects of various herbicide treatments and cultural establishment methods on weed control, crop injury, and establishment of five warm season grass species. The experiment was repeated for 3 years at Rosemount, MN on a Waukegon silt loam soil. Big bluestem, sideoats grama, indiangrass, little bluestem, and switchgrass were seeded at rates of 10, 10, 10, 7, and 5 pounds per live seed per acre, respectively. All seed was "de-bearded" to facilitate seeding. The experimental design was a split block. Whole plots were grass species planted in strips 5 feet wide. Sub plots consisted of preemergence (PRE) or postemergence (POST) herbicide treatments or combinations of oat cover crop and clipping treatments. The sub plot treatments were applied to strips 10 feet wide across the five grass species. Plant residue was removed from the plot for the oat companion plus clip treatment but was left on the plot area following the subsequent clipping, and was left on the plots for each clipping of no herbicide or companion crop plus clip treatment. Residual yields were determined by harvesting a 21 ft2 area within each plot the following year. Percentages of warm season grasses, broadleaf and grass weeds were determined by visual observation and hand separations. Imazapic (AC 263,222) application resulted in poor stands of switchgrass the seeding year at all rates tested (0.047, 0.063, 0.125, 0.188 lb/A) but the lower rates did cause less injury applied PRE or POST based on stand establishment. The 0.63 and 0.47 lb/A rate of imazapic applied PRE resulted in less stand reduction compared with POST applications and resulted in the highest residual forest yield. Little bluestem showed poor to moderate tolerance to imazapic with stand reductions of 43% or more in 1996, for example, with stand reduction reduced to 27% at the lowest rate, 0.047 lb/A, by the second year. There was a slight trend for improved establishment of little bluestem with PRE applications of imazapic. Big bluestem showed excellent tolerance to imazapic applied either POST or PRE at all rates tested. By the end of the establishment season, big bluestem stands typically ranged from 61 to 91% of full stand in 1996, for example. Yields did not differ within application method across rates. Indiangrass showed moderate tolerance to imazapic. Rates of imazapic of 0.063 lb/A or lower resulted in the best stands and residual yield. Slightly better stands, but clearly better residual year forage yields were obtained with PRE applications. Imazamox (0.047 lb/A) PRE or POST resulted in moderate to excellent stands of all grass species tested. Little bluestem and indiangrass had the least tolerance with establishment year season end stands reduced 36 to 52%. Tolerance of switchgrass, sideoats grama, and big bluestem was good to excellent at the 0.047 lb/A rate tested whether applied PRE or POST. High residual forage yields were obtained with all species. Imazethapyr (0.063 lb/A) resulted in moderate stands of little bluestem, indiangrass, and switchgrass. Tolerance was equal to or better for each of these species when applied PRE compared with POST. Big bluestem and sideoats grama had good to excellent tolerance to imazethapyr whether applied PRE or POST. Residual year yields were high relative to other treatments with imazethapyr despite stand and growth reductions. Yields were equal to or higher with PRE applications compared with POST. Use of metsulfuron-methyl (0.018 lb/A) resulted in very poor stands of indiangrass the establishment year when applied POST and poor indiangrass stands applied PRE. Both application methods resulted in more than 70% stand reduction the second year. Little bluestem also showed moderate and poor tolerance to metsulfuron applied PRE and POST, respectively. Switchgrass, sideoats grama, and big bluestem showed good tolerance POST and good to excellent tolerance PRE to metsulfuron. The use of an atrazine standard (2 lb/A) resulted in poor to moderate stands of little bluestem and indiangrass. Sideoats grama showed moderate to good tolerance and switchgrass and big bluestem good tolerance to atrazine. Residual year yields reflected establishment year crop tolerance with the best yield within species with atrazine on switchgrass. Use of no herbicides and allowing weeds to compete with warm season grasses resulted in poor stands of all species in two of three years depending on soil moisture during seedling germination and emergence. Switchgrass, big bluestem and to a less degree, sideoats grama produced good residual forage yields with clipping without herbicide use to manage weeds. Indiangrass and little bluestem did not result in acceptable yields without herbicide use. Weed control was excellent with all rates of imazapic tested applied PRE or POST, with the exception of POST treatments giving poor to fair control of common lambsquarters. Imazamox provided excellent control of eastern black nightshade and redroot pigweed applied PRE or POST, fair control of giant foxtail, common lambsquarters, and velvetleaf applied PRE, and fair to good control of common lambsquarters POST. Imazethapyr provided excellent control with the exception of poor common lambsquarters control POST, and fair to good velvetleaf control PRE. Metsulfuron and atrazine provided only moderate suppression of giant foxtail, but enough to release warm season grass seedlings. Metsulfuron appeared to release eastern black nightshade from competition with other weeds as well, which would be a toxicity concern if seedbanks were present and the site would be grazed the establishment year. Clipping provided fair control of weeds."
Note:This item is an abstract only!
ASA/CSSA/SSSA Citation (Crop Science-Like - may be incomplete):
Becker, R. L., and D. W. Miller. 1998. Warm season grass establishment systems. Proc. West. Soc. Weed Sci. 51:p. 127-128.
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