Full TGIF Record # 226832
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Web URL(s):http://www.swss.ws/wp-content/uploads/docs/2011 Proceedings-SWSS.pdf#page=434
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Author(s):Hoyle, J. A.; Walker, R. H.
Author Affiliation:Auburn University, Auburn, AL
Title:Altering weed populations prior to turfgrass establishment by soil solarization, flaming, and pesticides
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Meeting Info.:San Juan, Puerto Rico: January 24-26, 2011
Source:2011 Proceedings, Southern Weed Science Society. Vol. 64, 2011, p. 326.
# of Pages:1
Publishing Information:Champaign, Illinois: Southern Weed Science Society
Keywords:TIC Keywords: Dazomet; Seedbed flame sterilization; Soil solarization; Soil sterilization; Weed control
Abstract/Contents:"Emerging weeds are highly competitive during turfgrass establishment. Therefore, soil fumigants are often used to reduce weed seed populations. Alternative methods to soil fumigants are being explored because methyl bromide is phased out. Soil sterilization by solarization and soil-heating are possible alternatives for chemical fumigation. Traditionally soil sterilization techniques utilize transparent plastic mulch to cover the soil surface. This process confines radiant-heat below the plastic, consequently transferring heat to the soil. Alternative methods utilized in this study consist of intense heat from propane burners to raise soil temperatures and potentially reduce seed viability of weed seed populations. Soil-sterilization and flame heating experiments were conducted at Auburn University Turfgrass Research Unit to evaluate soil sterilization effectiveness prior to turfgrass establishment. Treatments for research trials were initiated on June 1, 2009, June 18, 2009, May 18, 2010 and June 15, 2010. Marvyn loamy sand soil was tilled and prepared for turfgrass seeded establishment. Treatments included soil-solarization (SOL), dazomet (389 kg ha-1) (DAZ), flame-heating (SFL), and emerged-weed flaming (covered with germination cloth or uncovered). Germination cloth was applied or not applied to the soil surface of emerged-weed flaming plots. Germination cloth was used to stimulate weed emergence. Soil solarization utilized 6 mm, clear, polyethylene plastic applied by hand. Flame-heating and emerged-weed flaming utilized a PL-8750 flame sanitizer (Flame Engineering Inc., LaCrosse, Kansas, USA) commonly employed for soil sanitation of poultry production houses. Flame heating is direct soil flaming to increase soil temperatures to kill weed seed. Emerged-weed flaming is employed similarly to flame-heating but allows weeds to emerge before treatment; thereby potentially depleting the weed seed bank by killed emerged weeds and seed heating. Dazomet was applied 21 days before turfgrass establishment. Soil-solarization treatment was applied 42 days prior to seeding. Flame-heating and emerged-weed flaming treatments were conducted 1 and/or 21 days prior to establishing turfgrass species. Seeding was conducted on July 18, 2009 and June 30, 2010; July 31, 2009 and July 7, 2010. Seeded turfgrass species included 'Zenith' zoysiagrass (Zoysia japonica Steud.), seashore paspalum (Paspalum vaginatum Sw.), and 'TifBlair' centipedegrass (Eremochloa ophiuroides (Munro) Hack.). Plant counts for old world diamond flower (Oldenlandia corymbosa), spotted spurge (Chamaesyce maculata), Virginia buttonweed (Diodia virginiana L.), and carpetweed (Mollugo verticillatta) were conducted 3 weeks after seeding turfgrass (WAS). Counts were transformed to percent change of number of weed species per m2 compared to the control. Data was analyzed by PROC MIXED in SAS® (v. 9.1.3). Each weed species responded to each treatment differently. Solarization decreased old world diamond flower, Virginia buttonweed, spotted spurge, and carpetweed 54, 94, 81, and 92%, respectively. Dazomet decreased old world diamond flower, Virginia buttonweed and carpetweed 78, 94 and 16%, respectively but increased spotted spurge 32%. Flameheating decreased all weed species except carpetweed increasing the number of plants per m2 by 43%. All emerged-weed flaming regime treatments decreased all weed species compared to the control. Emerged-weed flaming conducted 1 day prior to seeding, emerged-weed flaming conducted 1 and 21 days prior to seeding, emerged-weed flaming covered conducted 1 day prior to seeding and emerged-weed flaming covered conducted 1 and 21 days prior to seeding decreased Virginia buttonweed 4, 55, 58 and 57%, respectively; old world diamond flower 85, 74, 77 and 93%, respectively; carpetweed 81, 76, 75 and 91%, respectively and spotted spurge 25, 59, 83 and 94%, respectively. Populations of old world diamond flower and Virginia buttonweed were decreased by all treatments. Each weed species responded differently to each type of thermal treatment. These results indicate soil sterilization by flaming could potentially be an acceptable means of reducing weed seed populations before seeded turfgrass establishment. Studies demonstrated a high potential for reducing weed populations utilizing emerged-weed flaming after covering with germination cloth."
Note:This item is an abstract only!
ASA/CSSA/SSSA Citation (Crop Science-Like - may be incomplete):
Hoyle, J. A., and R. H. Walker. 2011. Altering weed populations prior to turfgrass establishment by soil solarization, flaming, and pesticides. South. Weed Sci. Soc. Proc. 64:p. 326.
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http://www.swss.ws/wp-content/uploads/docs/2011 Proceedings-SWSS.pdf#page=434
    Last checked: 08/06/2013
    Requires: PDF Reader
    Notes: Item is within a single large file
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