Full TGIF Record # 229535
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Publication Type:
Author(s):Peacock, C. H.
Author Affiliation:University of Florida
Title:Discussion I: Turfgrass water use and quality
Meeting Info.:Texas A&M University Research and Extension Center, Dallas, Texas: June 4-7 1986
Source:1986 Southern Turf Research Information ExchangeGroup. 1986, p. 5-8.
# of Pages:4
Publishing Information:s.l.: Southern Research Information Exchange Group
Abstract/Contents:"Every area of the United States is critically reviewing its water quality and availability. Rapid growth in the 'Sunbelt' states has resulted in a correspondingly rapid decline in available water resources. Turf managers are concerned with water quality and quantity; how reductions in availability will affect cultural practices; and long term effects of water quality on soil conditions and turfgrass growth. Recent developments in turfgrass research have seen a shift in emphasis over the past 10 years in turfgrass water research. From the early 1960's to the mid 1970's most research projects dealt with determining water use requirements of turfgrass species. Only 11 years ago, the Water Resources Council concluded that there was enough water for future needs, but there would be regional shortages. Drought problems in the last few years have made the public acutely aware of the water problems. Turf research has also seen a shift to investigation on basic physiological responses of turfgrass species to water stress; interactions of water use and water availability among different species; evaluations of management techniques for water conservation; and tolerance of turfgrass species to reduced water quality, especially salinity. Turf Water Use. Early research was done by van Bavel (1961), Weaver and Stephens (1963), and Ekern (1966), and they reported on studies which determined ET rates for warm-season turfgrasses. These were generally in agreement with regional differences being noted. ET rates ranged from 0.27 to 0.47 cm/day in these studies over the growing season. Kneebone and Pepper in a more recent study (1978) found that under arid conditions ET rates could be as high as 0.56 cm/day. Studies which have compared warm-season and cool-season species have generally found the C3 perennial turfgrasses have higher water use rates by 20 to 30% (Biran et al., 1981; Feldhake et al., 1983). There is a general trend that plants with a sparse, vertical growth habit tend to have a higher water use rate than the denser, lower growing types. Turf Physiology Aspects. Studies to determine the physiological basis for turfgrass responses found that ET was influenced primarily by environmental conditions (Johns et al., 1983). Short-term stress on St. Augustinegrass induced by irrigation scheduling can result in an increase in stomatal resistance, loss of turgor pressure, lower ET and photosynthesis. At irrigation intervals not exceeding 6 days, this is reversible with a 24 hour period (Peacock and Dudeck, (1984). Influence of Cultural Practices. Cutting height has been found in a number of studies to directly correspond to ET rates. The more leaf area available, the greater the water use. Mowing also was found to decrease the depth in the soil profile at which water could be absorbed. Soil compaction has been found to reduce ET rates, probably as a result of reduced rooting, slower shoot growth, and lower soil aeration (Sills and Carrow, 1983). Studies on Water Quality. The effects of salinity on turfgrass seed germination and growth is a very active area of research. Horst (1984) identified salt tolerant tall fescue cultivars which could be used in breeding for improved salinity tolerant varieties. Dudeck et al. (1983) identified Tifdwarf and Tifgreen bermudagrass cultivars to be the most salt tolerant. New varieties of Seashore paspalumgrass show promise for improved salinity tolerance where water quality is a concern (Dudeck and Peacock, 1985)."
ASA/CSSA/SSSA Citation (Crop Science-Like - may be incomplete):
Peacock, C. H. 1986. Discussion I: Turfgrass water use and quality. 1986 Southern Turf Research Information ExchangeGroup. p. 5-8.
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