Full TGIF Record # 267965
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Web URL(s):https://listings.lib.msu.edu/michr/1970sum.pdf#page=8
    Last checked: 01/13/2017
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Author(s):King, John William
Title:Factors affecting the heating and damage of Merion Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.) sod under simulated shipping conditions
Source:Michigan Turfgrass Report. Summer 1970, p. 7-8.
# of Pages:2
Publishing Information:East Lansing, Michigan: Michigan Agricultural Experiment Station, Michigan State University
Keywords:TIC Keywords: Carbon dioxide; Ethylene; Evaluations; Oxygen; Poa pratensis; Research priorities; Sod heating; Sod shipment; Temperature response
Cultivar Names:Merion
Abstract/Contents:"Merion Kentucky bluegrass sod may heat and be damaged during shipment from commercial production fields to market. The effects of cutting height, nitrogen rates, and N6 benzyladenine treatments on sod heating and damage were investigated under simulated shipping conditions in a series of experiments. Shipping conditions were simulated by stacking 12 sod pieces in insulated plywood boxes (20 inches square by 30 inches deep) and placing 255 lb. of weight over the sod. Temperature, carbon dioxide, oxygen, and ethylene levels within the sod stacks were measured. Sod pieces were removed from the boxes at 24 hour intervals. Six inch diameter plugs were transplanted to pots in the greenhouse. Percent leaf kill, percent leaf cover, and root organic matter production data were obtained. The effects of carbon dioxide, oxygen, and ethylene were investigated in controlled atmosphere studies. Sod pieces were removed from the chambers at 24 hour intervals and transplanted to pots in the greenhouse. Percent leaf kill, percent leaf cover, and root production data were obtained. Inhibition of respiration from oxygen starvation or from high carbon dioxide levels was not a cause of sod injury. Carbon dioxide levels increased to 13 to 19% and oxygen levels decreased to 2 to 5% during storage under simulated shipment conditions. Controlled atmosphere studies showed that sod survived longest when stored at 18% carbon dioxide and 2% oxygen. The respiration rate of sod cut at 2 inches averaged 74 ml CO2/kg/hr. The decreases in total available carbohydrate levels were well correlated with increases in percent leaf kill and decreases in root production for a sod heating box experiment conducted late in the season. Carbohydrate levels were not reduced to a consistent low level before sod death occurred for sod stored in controlled atmospheres at 104 and 83°F. Available carbohydrates were not exhausted in either experiment. Direct high temperature injury occurred at 104°F. Ethylene production is not a factor affecting sod injury in commercial sod loads. High ethylene production (2 to 5 ppm) occurred where high rates of nitrogen were applied. The ethylene production was usually less than 2 ppm where normal levels of nitrogen (150 lb/A/yr) were applied. Controlled atmosphere studies showed that a sharp decrease in root production occurred between 2 and 4 ppm of ethylene. Ethylene production was independent of temperature. N6 benzyladenine, a respiration inhibitor, did not affect carbon dioxide and oxygen levels, temperature, or injury of sod during storage. Root production was higher for sod produced with below normal nitrogen fertilization. The application of a very high rate of nitrogen (215 lb/A) within a few days before harvest resulted in more injury and less root production than for sod produced with normal (150 lb/A/yr) nitrogen fertilization. Sod cut at 0.75 inch within a few days before harvest survived storage longer than sod cut at 2 inches. The low cutting treatment reduced respiration rate and temperature levels during storage and resulted in reduced percent leaf kill and increased root production. Sod injury increased progressively in relation to increased temperature levels during storage. Sod survived 5 days with less than 10% leaf kill where storage temperature reached only 87°F. The percent leaf kill reached 80 to 90% after 3 to 4 days of storage where storage temperatures reached 95°F. The rate of sod injury was greater relative to temperature in early June when maximum seedhead production occurred and in early August when soil temperatures were higher. Ventilation tubes inserted into commercial sod loads did not reduce temperature effectively. High temperature was the most important cause of sod injury."
Note:This item is an abstract only!
ASA/CSSA/SSSA Citation (Crop Science-Like - may be incomplete):
King, J. W. 1970. Factors affecting the heating and damage of Merion Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.) sod under simulated shipping conditions. Mich. Turfgrass Res. Rep. p. 7-8.
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    Last checked: 01/13/2017
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