Full TGIF Record # 32572
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Author(s):Millner, P. D.; Olenchock, S. A.; Epstein, E.; Rylander, R.; Haines, J.; Walker, J.; Ooi, B. L.; Horne, E.; Maritato, M.
Author Affiliation:United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Soil Microbial Systems Laboratory, Beltsville, MD; National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, Morgantown, WV; E & A Environmental Consultants, Canton, MA; University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; New York State Museum, Albany, NY; United States Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C.; Organic Recycling, Inc., Valley Cottage, NY; New York State Department of Health, Albany, NY; ChemRisk, Portland, ME
Title:Bioaerosols associated with composting facilities
Source:Compost Science & Utilization. Vol. 2, No. 4, Autumn 1994, p. 8-57.
# of Pages:52
Publishing Information:Emmaus, PA: JG Press
Keywords:TIC Keywords: Bioaerosols; Composting; Waste management; Organic matter; Aspergillus fumigatus; Mycotoxins; Bacteria; Fungi
Abstract/Contents:"Composting is one of the major treatment processes used to transform wastes into agriculturally useful products. The potential health risks associated with exposure to biological aerosols (hereafter referred to as bioaerosols) generated from the processing and handling of composted organic materials are a major concern in jurisdictions evaluating existing compost installations or planning new ones. Bioaerosols of concern during composting are like those from other organic dusts and they consist of microorganisms (actinomycetes, bacteria and fungi), arthropods, protozoa and organic constituents of microbial and plant origin. Major concerns are the fungus Aspergillus fumigatus (AF), cell walls of gram-negative bacteria (endotoxins), beta-1,3 glucans from the cell walls of fungi and mycotoxins. These biological materials are found in aerosols generated from a wide variety of organic wastes including grass clippings, wood chips, food and household wastes, agricultural wastes and sewage sludge. This report describes the dispersion of inhalable organic dust in and around composting facilities as well as the possible health effects of the microbial constituents as they relate to infection, allergy, inflammination and annoyance. Special emphasis is given to the opportunistic fungus, Aspergillus fumigatus, which has been the subject of specific concern in several jurisdictions involved with planning, siting and permitting of composting facilities. The role of bacterial endotoxins and mycotoxins and their association with composting and noncomposting activities/sources are also reviewed and evaluated. The common natural source exposures to AF and bacterial endotoxins in air and in organic materials and dusts are compared to the exposures at and around composting sites. In addition, this report highlights other aspects of bioaerosols that are important to the evaluation of possible health effect concerns, but which are not fully answerable at present because additional basic data are needed."
See Also:See also summarized version, "Bioaerosols and composting", Biocycle, 36(1) January 1995, p. 48-54, R=51943 R=51943
ASA/CSSA/SSSA Citation (Crop Science-Like - may be incomplete):
Millner, P. D., S. A. Olenchock, E. Epstein, R. Rylander, J. Haines, J. Walker, et al. 1994. Bioaerosols associated with composting facilities. Compost Sci. Util. 2(4):p. 8-57.
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