Full TGIF Record # 40868
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Author(s):Harman, Gary E.; Nelson, Eric B.; Ondik, Kristen
Author Affiliation:Department of Plant Pathology, 334 Plant Science Bldg., Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853
Title:Nontarget effects of turfgrass fungicides on microbial communities in USGA putting green profiles
Source:Cornell Turfgrass: Annual Report 1996-1997. August 1997, p. 4-8.
# of Pages:5
Publishing Information:[Ithaca], NY: Cornell University
Keywords:TIC Keywords: Non-target effects; Fungicides; Soil microorganisms; Golf greens; Trichoderma harzianum; Fungicide evaluation; Chlorothalonil; Iprodione; Metalaxyl-M; Propiconazole; Triadimefon; Cyproconazole; Application rates; Application frequency; Dollar spot; Sclerotinia homoeocarpa; Disease severity; Disease control; Actinomycetales; USGA recommendations; Biological control
Trade Names:Mefanoxam
Abstract/Contents:"This research is examining in detail the nontarget effects of fungicides commonly used for disease control on golf course putting greens. Our goal is to understand the scope and magnitude of microbial responses to fungicide applications so that potentially detrimental side effects may be avoided. We established plots on peat-based bentgrass greens constructed using USGA specifications, and similar greens to which brewery compost was added during construction and the biocontrol fungus Trichoderma harzianum was added at the beginning of the experiment. These green structures were used because they were expected to contain different microbial populations and so fungicides may have dissimilar nontarget effects. The fungicides chosen for these experiments were Daconil Ultrex (chlorothalonil), Chipco 26019 Flo (iprodione), Subdue Maxx (mefenoxam), Banner Maxx (propiconazole), Bayleton 25 W (triadimefon), Prostar 50 WP (benzamide), and Sentinel (cyproconazole). Surprisingly, the various fungicides, even when multiple applications at their maximum legal rates were made, had little effect upon microbial communities. Numbers even of organisms known to be highly sensitive to the fungicides being applied were little affected by the treatments used in this experiment. These data suggest that these fungicides are not present at the fungitoxic concentrations below about 1 inch below the soil surface, since the samples were taken only about this depth into the turf soil profile. Several reasons for this lack of efficiency may be possible, including binding to soil particles and rapid microbial degradation. This lack of efficacy suggests, first, that the fungicides tested may be less disruptive to normal soil microflora than originally expected. Second, the data suggest that the fungicides should largely be effective only on leaf diseases and have little effect upon subterranean fungal populations and root health. Augmentation of plots with the compost + T. harzianum addition had two noticeable effects. First, levels of T. harzianum increased about 1000-fold with the addition of this biocontrol product and remained at a consistent level over the sampling times. Second, levels of actinomycetes were lower in augmented than in nonaugmented plots at the second sampling time. These results are preliminary and will be followed by additional tests on other microflora with measures of both soil microfloral activity and further measures of microbial diversity."
ASA/CSSA/SSSA Citation (Crop Science-Like - may be incomplete):
Harman, G. E., E. B. Nelson, and K. Ondik. 1997. Nontarget effects of turfgrass fungicides on microbial communities in USGA putting green profiles. Cornell Turfgrass Ann. Rep. p. 4-8.
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