Full TGIF Record # 63138
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Publication Type:
Author(s):Stowell, Larry
Title:Soil compaction: a case study at Candlewood Country Club
Section:Soil, water and tissue analyses
Other records with the "Soil, water and tissue analyses" Section
Source:PTRI 1996 1997 Turfgrass Research Report. 1997, p. 91-93.
# of Pages:3
Publishing Information:San Diego, CA: PACE Turfgrass Research Institute
Keywords:TIC Keywords: Compaction; Case studies; Golf greens; Measurement; Aerification; Vertidrain; Sand-based golf greens; Methodology
Facility Names:Candlewood Country Club, in Whittier, California
Abstract/Contents:"One method of measuring soil compaction, or strength, entails recording the pressure needed to force a rod (cone tip penetrometer) into a soil. If the soil provides resistance of more than 300-400 psi, plant roots have difficulty or are unable to penetrate the soil. For this reason, plant roots are frequently found only in the top 2-3" of soil, where compaction is usually less than 300 psi. In this study, readings taken inside the sand-filled vertidrain holes, one day after vertidrain treatment showed that the vertidrain reduced compaction at depths of 3-5" from about 500 psi to less than 400 psi (Figure 1). Five weeks later, we went back to evaluate compaction again, but it was difficult to identify vertidrain holes. For this reason, the readings we obtained (Figure 2) were probably taken from areas between holes. As expected, readings remained unchanged at 500 psi at depths of 3-5". It is likely, however, that the compaction level in the vertidrain holes remained below 400 psi. The common observation of deep roots in vertidrain holes supports this hypothesis. An additional advantage of vertidraining may be improved water infiltration. Even though compaction was not relieved in general throughout the green, the greens take water well in the summer indicating that water infiltration is one of the greatest benefits of this method. Further studies are needed to determine if it is possible to relieve compaction uniformly throughout the surface of a green without damaging the surface to the point where golf play will be hindered for a long period following the treatment. Note: Unlike the vertidrain holes, aerification holes did not show a decrease in compaction one day after aerification (Figure 1). This reading may be misleading due to the fact that aerification holes are shallow (3") and the penetrometer may not accurately read under these conditions. Therefore, despite the apparently high readings of 500 psi in the aerification holes, they are probably actually less compacted in the top 3" where new sand fills the holes."
"Cooperators: Mike Caranci, Candlewood Country Club, Don Parsons, Old Ranch Country Club, Greg Swanson, San Luis Rey Downs"
ASA/CSSA/SSSA Citation (Crop Science-Like - may be incomplete):
Stowell, L. 1997. Soil compaction: a case study at Candlewood Country Club. Turfgrass Res. Rep. p. 91-93.
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