Full TGIF Record # 6472
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Author(s):Raatikainen, M.; Vasarainen, A.
Author Affiliation:Department of Biology, Jyvaskyla University, Finland
Title:Ecology and control of timothy grass flies (Amaurosoma spp., Dipt., Scatophagidae) and the effects of chemical control on the fauna of the field stratum
Source:Annales Agriculturae Fenniae. Vol. 11, 1972, p. 57-73.
# of Pages:17
Keywords:TIC Keywords: Amaurosoma armillatum; Amaurosoma flavipes; Insecticides; Phleum pratense; Parathion; Dimethoate; Dicrotophos; Bromophos; Trichlorfon
Abstract/Contents:"Investigations on the bionomics and control of Amaurosoma flavipes (Fall.) and A. armillatum (Zett.) on timothy grass (Phleum pratense) were begun in western Finland in 1958. The distribution of these flies and fluctuations in population density were also studied, mainly from records covering the period 1894-1971. Both species extended to beyond the Arctic Circle. A. flavipes was the more abundant of the two, forming 91.9-95.2% of populations sampled in the south-east of the country, though only 56.6-57.7% of those in the northern half. It was more abundant than A. armillatum in first-year leys, and was more abundant on organic than on mineral soils. The bionomics of the two species (cf. RAE/A 57, 988, etc.) are similar. The larvae feed on the ear while this is still within the sheath. An examination of ears from various parts of the country showed that an average of 48% of the seeds in each ear was destroyed. The percentages of damaged ears have tended to be high for two consecutive years and such years of heavy damage have occurred at intervals of six years. In years when infestation is light, about 5% of the ears are damaged; in years of heavy infestation, 50-90% of the ears have been damaged in some localities. Studies on control in cultivated forest clearings indicated that populations could be reduced to a very low level if the cultivation of timothy grass was interrupted or the whole area was treated with insecticides. However, within three years of the resumption of the cultivation of timothy grass, populations had again reached their former level. No resistant varieties have been found, though the loss of seed is less in long-eared than in short-eared varieties. Of the insecticides tested, parathion, dimethoate, dicrotophos, bromophos and trichlorphon afforded good control. The application of DDT or parathion reduced the total arthropod fauna in the field layer by about 70-80%, and treatment with trichlophon reduced it by about 50%."
Note:Summary appears in Finnish
Geographic Terms:Finland
ASA/CSSA/SSSA Citation (Crop Science-Like - may be incomplete):
Raatikainen, M., and A. Vasarainen. 1972. Ecology and control of timothy grass flies (Amaurosoma spp., Dipt., Scatophagidae) and the effects of chemical control on the fauna of the field stratum. Ann. Agric. Fenniae. 11:p. 57-73.
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