Full TGIF Record # 91782
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Web URL(s):http://usgatero.msu.edu/v02/n15.pdf
    Last checked: 11/2003
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Author(s):Crum, James R.; Wolff, Thomas F.; Rogers, John N. III
Author Affiliation:Crum: Professor, Turfgrass Soil Management; Wolff: Associate Professor and Associate Dean, College of Engineering; and Rogers: Professor, Turfgrass Management, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan
Title:Agronomic and engineering properties of USGA putting greens
Source:USGA Turfgrass and Environmental Research Online. Vol. 2, No. 15, August 1 2003, p. [1-11].
# of Pages:11
Publishing Information:Far Hills, NJ: United States Golf Association, Green Section
Keywords:TIC Keywords: USGA recommendations; Golf greens; Sand; Sand-based golf greens; Particle size; Physical properties of soil; Uniformity; Soil stability
Abstract/Contents:"The goal of this research at Michigan State University was to apply the principles of soil engineering to the issue of ensuring stability of sands used in golf course putting greens. The specific objectives of this research were to: develop six experimental sands that varied in particle size and gradation to represent a range of USGA specifications; determine bearing capacity of the six experimental sands and relate their strength to size and gradation characteristics of the sands; and determine bearing capacity of established putting greens and relate their strength to sand characteristics. The bearing capacity tests show the benefits of sands with a high coefficient of uniformity (Cu). The laboratory bearing results show the well-graded sands (i.e., those with grains with a larger range of particle size) were capable of withstanding an ultimate pressure greater than those sustained by uniform sands (i.e., those with grains that were uniform in size). Increasing the Cu of intermediate grade sands from 1.8 to 3.0 approximately doubled (from 22 to 42 psi) the laboratory bearing capacity. Increasing the Cu in the fine and coarse grain-sizes of sands also dramatically increased the bearing capacity of the sands. The testing conditions in the lab were somewhat different than those in the field. In the lab, there was no layer of turf, organic matter, and roots incorporated in the surface of the soil. Also, in the lab, the sand is contained in a rigid mold that will not allow lateral deformation or strain of the sand. This leads to a well-defined peak stress at failure and a non-ambiguous bearing capacity."
See Also:Other Reports from this USGA research project: 1996-01-088
Note:Partial reprint appears in, USGA Green Section Record, Vol. 42, No.2, March/April 2004, p. 11-14.
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Summary as abstract
ASA/CSSA/SSSA Citation (Crop Science-Like - may be incomplete):
Crum, J. R., T. F. Wolff, and J. N. III Rogers. 2003. Agronomic and engineering properties of USGA putting greens. USGA Turfgrass Environ. Res. Online. 2(15):p. [1-11].
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    Last checked: 11/2003
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MSU catalog number: SB 433 .A1 A65 [online]
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