Full TGIF Record # 64328
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Web URL(s):http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/00103629909370209
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Author(s):Wiedenfeld, Bob; Fenn, Lloyd B.; Miyamoto, Seiichi; Swietlik, Dariusz; Marlene, C.
Author Affiliation:Wiedenfeld: Research and Extension Center, Texas A&M University, Weslaco, TX; Fenn, Miyamoto and Marlene: Agricultural Research Center, Texas A&M University, El Paso, TX; Swietlik: Kingsville Citrus Center, Texas A&M University, Weslaco, TX
Title:Using sod to manage nitrogen in orchard floors
Source:Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis. Vol. 30, No. 3/4, 1999, p. 353-363.
# of Pages:11
Publishing Information:New York, NY: Marcel Dekker
Keywords:TIC Keywords: Live mulches; Orchard floors; Nitrogen; Irrigation; Leaching; Water use; Cool season turfgrasses; Warm season turfgrasses; Fertilizers; Paspalum notatum; Bouteloua dactyloides; Trifolium repens; Dactylis glomerata; Agropyron; Lysimeters; Competition
Abstract/Contents:"Irrigation of untilled orchard floors can lead to substantial leaching losses of nitrate-nitrogen (NO₃-N). Soil NO₃ that remains after cool weather in the fall is subject to leaching in the spring. Nitrate losses can be controlled through growing ground cover vegetation to cycle residual nitrogen (N) and/or limiting the amount of water applied. A study was initiated in lysimeters to compare sodded soil surfaces versus bare soil for controlling NO₃ leaching losses. Cool season vegetation (orchardgrass, western wheatgrass, white clover) and warm season grasses (bahiagrass and buffalograss) were compared for their effect on grapefruit seedling growth. A field verification in pecan orchards was conducted where clean-till versus a grass soil cover was used to compare the relative movement of NO₃ through the profile. The presence of vigorously growing sods greatly reduced NO₃ losses the first year in the lysimeter study. The second year a shade screen was placed over the lysimeters, resulting in greatly reduced cool season sod growth and substantially reduced warm season sod growth. The best grapefruit growth occurred on bare soil; vigorous sod growth greatly reduced grapefruit tree growth. In the second year of the experiment, tree growth on bare soil began to absorb substantial amounts of N. The presence of even reduced receding sod growth still adversely affected grapefruit tree growth. In commercial pecan orchards, NO₃ distributions in a clean-tilled orchard soil showed large quantities of NO₃ entering the water table (the highest quantity at the lowest depth of the soil profile) while in the presence of a sod much less NO₃ (highest profile NO₃ near the soil surface) was being lost to the water table. However, the NO₃ leaching patterns were of large leaching losses in clean tilled surfaces and small controlled leaching losses with sod surfaces."
ASA/CSSA/SSSA Citation (Crop Science-Like - may be incomplete):
Wiedenfeld, B., L. B. Fenn, S. Miyamoto, D. Swietlik, and C. Marlene. 1999. Using sod to manage nitrogen in orchard floors. Commun. Soil. Sci. Plant Anal. 30(3/4):p. 353-363.
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    Last checked: 10/13/2015
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