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All information provided within the Turfgrass Information Center (TIC) online system is for educational purposes only. TIC information resources are intended for use by an audience capable of information evaluation, given that a wide range of opinions are present in the database, including contradictions, controversial, and/or outdated conclusions. Such is the nature of professional and research literature!

TIC makes a diligent effort to provide complete and accurate representation of the turfgrass and other literature in its databases. However, TIC does not guarantee the accuracy, adequacy, or completeness of any information and makes no warranties or representations of any kind, express or implied, including but not limited to warranties of or fitness for a particular purpose. TIC disclaims all liability for errors or omissions that may exist and shall not be liable for any incidental, consequential or other damages (whether resulting from negligence or otherwise) including, without limitation, exemplary damages or lost profits arising out of or in connection with the use of the TIC Databases. Errors or omissions should be reported to the

      Turfgrass Information Center
      366 W. Circle Drive
      Michigan State University
      East Lansing, MI 48824 USA

References to commercial products or trade names do not constitute an endorsement by Michigan State University nor bias against those not mentioned.

Database contents may not be resold, in any media format, without permission from TIC.

Some material in the databases or electronic archives is from copyrighted publications of the respective copyright claimants and cooperators. Users of the database are referred to the publication data appearing in the bibliographic citations, as well as to the copyright notices appearing in the original publication. Copyright and source acknowledgment is required for all downloaded material.

Materials made available through the courtesy of the United States Golf Association (USGA) Green Section are subject to restrictions.

Please note: The Turfgrass Information Center does not diagnose, recommend, interpret, synthesize, evaluate or advise on turfgrass matters.