Full TGIF Record # 74363
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Web URL(s):http://web.archive.org/web/20061205204057/http://www.uoguelph.ca/GTI/itsweb/proceedings.pdf#page=30
    Last checked: 05/23/2017
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    Notes: Document is within a single large file
Publication Type:
i
Report
Content Type:Abstract or Summary only
Author(s):Howard, J. H.
Author Affiliation:Humboldt State University
Title:Golf course design and maintenance: Impacts on amphibians
Section:Abstracts
Other records with the "Abstracts" Section
Meeting Info.:Toronto, Ontario, Canada: 15-21 July, 2001
Source:IXth International Turfgrass Research Conference. Vol. 9, 2001, p. 61-62.
# of Pages:2
Publishing Information:[Toronto, Canada]: International Turfgrass Society
Keywords:TIC Keywords: Golf courses; Golf course design; Golf course maintenance; Aquatic environment; Wildlife; Golf industry trends; Pesticides; Toxicity; Environmental effects; Conservation; Golf courses in the environment
Abstract/Contents:"Golfing as a recreational enterprise has grown dramatically in recent years and has spawned a nation-wide proliferation of new courses. In light of this phenomenon, the industry is facing increased pressure to make development and maintenance of golf courses more sensitive to conservation issues. Concurrent with golf course expansion, one of the most alarming revelations in the conservation community in recent years has been the reports of worldwide declines in amphibian populations. Numerous investigators have observed mortality of amphibian larvae in natural populations associated with pesticide application. Increased mortality due to direct or indirect effects of pesticides in successive years may eventualy result in loss of entire populations over time. In our laboratory investigations, all amphibian species exhibited reduced survival and increased time to metamorphosis with higher concentrations of pesticides. However, there are very dramatic differences in pesticide toxicity. Many of the most toxic compounds are used during the breeding season and although there are differences among species in sensitivity, all species showed similar patterns of effect. At lower concentrations, mortality is often not the direct effect but rather we observed decreased hatching rates, slower growth rates and longer times to metamorphosis. Over many years, all of these more subtle effects can be more damaging to the persistence of amphibian populations than one large mortality event. Managers should have the data available to apply chemical treatments responsibly to reduce these hazards. That data should include information on the relative toxicity of the compounds, the persistence of those chemicals and the life stage that is most sensitive to treatments. As we have shown with our studies, some compounds appear to penetrate the jelly layers in amphibian eggs more readily than others and directly impact egg hatching. Some compounds that have little detectable effect on eggs can have dramatic effects on larval growth at low concentrations. Hopefully, our research will encourage others to evaluate additional compounds and expand the data base available to managers."
Language:English
References:0
Note:This item is an abstract only!
ASA/CSSA/SSSA Citation (Crop Science-Like - may be incomplete):
Howard, J. H. 2001. Golf course design and maintenance: Impacts on amphibians. Int. Turfgrass Res. Conf. 9:p. 61-62.
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Web URL(s):
http://web.archive.org/web/20061205204057/http://www.uoguelph.ca/GTI/itsweb/proceedings.pdf#page=30
    Last checked: 05/23/2017
    Requires: Adobe Acrobat
    Notes: Document is within a single large file
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